13 Best Mushrooms with specifications & using details

There are various types of mushrooms that can be grown indoors, each with its own set of requirements. Kits for the most widely grown mushrooms can be ordered. The type of mushroom you produce will be determined by your goals for growing mushrooms (personal or commercial), the resources and space available, your geographic location, and other factors.

In the Agaricus family, there are 3 varieties and they are Cremini, White button, and Portobellos.

Cremini

Cremini: Agaricus bisporus

Cremini mushrooms, generally known as crimini mushrooms, are quite similar to white button mushrooms, with the exception that the Cremini have a brown cap. Cremini mushrooms are the most often consumed fungus in the planet. The “button” mushroom is another name for this fungus.

Agaricus bisporus comes in a range of strains (or “isolates”). Harvesting these mushrooms at various stages results in a wide range of cultivar names. White buttons are taken when they are young or in the middle of their growth cycle.

cremini mushroom

Baby Bellas, baby portobellos, and portobellini or brown mushrooms are all names for cremini mushrooms. Portobellos are a type of cremini that is older. Portobello mushrooms are cremini mushrooms that have been allowed to achieve complete maturity before being harvested. Wild Cremini mushrooms have a stronger flavor, a harder texture, and a darker brown color than the white button mushrooms found in supermarkets.

Button mushrooms have been in nature since the dawn of time. The Egyptians believed that these mushrooms might grant immortality, and they were known as “meal for the gods” in Rome. Mushrooms were also regarded to have superpowers by other cultures.

Health & Medicinal benefits

Despite the nutritional benefits of cremini mushrooms, they lack the medicinal popularity of their cousins, reishi and maitake. According to research, the Cremini contains aromatase, an enzyme that aids estrogen production and may lower the risk of breast cancer.

Cremini Mushroom contains-

  • Vitamin D
  • Potassium
  • B Vitamins
  • Helpful antioxidants like selenium
  • Fiber
  • Linoleic acid

Immune system support

Cremini mushrooms help our immune systems by affecting the way white blood cells function. According to some research, the mushrooms’ compounds inhibit the activity of some white blood cells while activating others. Vitamin D1, which is contained in cremini mushrooms, is an important ingredient for a healthy immune system.

Anti-Inflammatory Benefits

Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain malignancies are all linked to chronic inflammation. Inflammation can be reduced and prevented by taking fresh mushrooms or extracts as supplements. In some circumstances, inflammatory blocking compounds found in cremini mushrooms outperform those found in shiitake and maitake mushrooms.

Anti-oxidant Benefits

Cremini mushrooms contain antioxidants and have a beneficial effect on oxidative metabolism due to their nutritional content. Minerals like selenium, zinc, and manganese, which are all important for antioxidant enzymes, are found in their foods.

Cardiovascular Benefits

Cremini mushrooms have been demonstrated to offer amazing cardiovascular advantages, including the ability to help prevent cardiovascular disease and preserve the aorta. Cremini has also been shown to help decrease cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides when consumed on a daily basis for several months. Vitamins B2, B3, and B5 (pantothenic acid), as well as B6, and folate, are abundant in cremini mushrooms.

Anti-cancer Benefits

Cremini mushrooms have anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties. They also help to prevent and treat cancer.

 

White Button

White Button: Agaricus bisporus

The white button mushroom is a typical produce department item that is also reasonably inexpensive. This “table mushroom” is so ubiquitous in the United States that the average yearly consumption rate is roughly two pounds. They can also be found growing wild in meadows around the world. The button mushroom is white, but when injured, it turns brown.

white button mushroom

Health & Medicinal Benefits

White button mushrooms have been proven to boost the immune system and fight cancer. B vitamins, selenium, potassium, and protein, as well as other vital vitamins and minerals, are all found in them.

Note: In the wild, it’s easy to confuse the Agaricus bisporus with toxic mushrooms like the fatal death cap mushroom. If you go mushroom hunting, make sure you have someone with you who knows how to distinguish between edible and deadly mushrooms.

Preparation & Cooking

White button mushrooms have a mild flavor and are simple to prepare. For storage, the Agaricus bisporus should be well washed and wrapped in paper. They’ll keep in the fridge for about a week, which is longer than most mushrooms. These mushrooms can be eaten raw or cooked with meat, fish, or chicken. They can also be used as a pizza topping. They’ve been marinated, skewered, grilled, and sautéed to perfection.

Growing White Buttons

White button mushrooms grow well in compost, and kits may be grown inside with great success. Within a week or so, these will begin to bear fruit. On a compost substrate, button mushrooms are grown.

 

Portobellos

Portobello: Agaricus bisporus

The Portobello mushroom is the grown-up form of the cremini, or white button mushroom. Growing white buttons and portobello or cremini mushrooms indoors is rather simple (baby portobellos). They’re delicious, and a decent Portobello mushroom kit may produce a crop in three weeks and fruit for up to eight weeks.

portobello mushroom

Enoki

Enoki: Flammulina velutipes

Enokitake, enokidake, winter mushroom, fuzzy foot, nametake, yuki-motase, golden needle, winter mushroom, snow puff, and velvet stem mushroom are all names for the Enoki mushroom. Enokis are commercially grown and can be seen in clusters on aspen, elm, and willow trees in the wild.

enoki mushroom

The farmed Enoki mushroom is significantly larger and has a burned orange color, as opposed to the wild-grown version. This is owing to the morphological sensitivity of this mushroom to light and carbon dioxide. Enoki, on the other hand, is practically pure white when grown, with long stems and little heads.

Health and Medicinal Benefits

Enoki mushrooms are low in fat and high in protein, carbs, dietary fiber, and niacin, iron, and potassium. The Enoki mushroom is said to prevent and treat liver illness and stomach ulcers by the Chinese and Japanese.

Preparation and Cooking

Enoki mushrooms are little, white mushrooms with tall stalks that are frequently offered as a bunch. They pair well with soba noodles, lemongrass, herbs, soy, and fish or poultry in salads, noodles, and stir fry meals.

Growing Enoki Mushrooms

Enoki mushrooms have white, light cream, or reddish-brown caps that are one to two inches in diameter and five inches tall. Enoki is a relatively simple plant to grow, requiring only a humid atmosphere and mild temps in a hardwood sawdust medium.

  • Inoculate hardwood sawdust medium with sterilized Enoki mushroom spawn using a syringe.
  • To spawn, enoki mushrooms must be kept in a warm environment. The humidity should be close to 100%, and the temperature should be between 22 and 25 degrees Celsius – preferable with more CO2 exposure. In two to four weeks, the eggs should hatch.
  • To stimulate growth, the temperature is decreased to 10-12 degrees Celsius after spawning. Reduce CO2 exposure to between 80 and 90%.
  • To protect the delicate structure of your Enoki mushrooms, harvest them in bunches or bouquets. It’s possible that the substrate will be able to generate one more crop. Beginner enoki mushroom kits can also make things much easier.

 

Maitake Mushroom

Maitake: Grifola frondosa

This delicious and fragrant mushroom is also known as the “hen of the woods,” “sheep’s head,” “king of mushrooms,” and “cloud mushroom.” Maitake is a polypore fungus that has no gills and releases spores through microscopic holes. Its name means “dancing mushroom” in Japanese.

maitake mushroom

Grifola frondosa grows wild throughout the United States and Canada, as well as Japan, China, and Europe, near the base of oak trees and other trees. The caps are arranged in curved layers that originate underground from a massive tubular structure. The mushroom can grow to be several feet across and weigh between 18 and 22 kilograms.

Health Benefits & Medicinal effects

The maitake mushroom has been utilized as a potent medicinal mushroom in Japan for many years. Polysaccharides, like those found in other polypores, stimulate the immune system. A polysaccharide is a type of complex carbohydrate made up of smaller sugar molecules that helps to keep blood pressure in check.

Certain polysaccharides, such as beta-D-glucans, are thought to stimulate the immune system’s anti-cancer defenses. The maitake D-fraction or MD-fraction is a glucan extract.

In addition to helping fight cancer, research for the benefits of other conditions include:

  • Diabetes
  • HIV/AIDS
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure

Preparation & cooking

Stir-fried, roasted, sautéed, stuffed, or used in tea, maitake mushroom caps are versatile.

Growing Maitake Mushrooms

Maitake mushrooms are delicious, but they are not widely available in grocery shops, despite their culinary and medicinal value. You can order a Maitake mushroom kit to grow maitake mushrooms indoors but bear in mind that they are picky and require precise light, temperature, and humidity.

  • Maitake spawn is available in a variety of forms, including liquid, grain, sawdust, and wooden plugs. You’ll need the liquid spawn if you’re making your own substrate from scratch or if you’re running a business.
  • Make a substrate with a mixture of sawdust and hardwood chips that is about half to three-quarters sawdust and hardwood chips. The remaining ingredients should be a grain such as wheat bran and a modest amount of sugar (about 1%). You can also add a ten percent top soil from a hardwood-growing area. Burlap or plastic bags with vent holes are used to combine this. Slowly add modest amounts of calcium, lime, or gypsum until the pH level of the substrate reaches five and a half to six and a half percent.
  • Use the spawn fluids, sawdust, or grain to inoculate the substrate. Small holes can be drilled in a log and the plugs inserted.
  • Your project should be completed in a room with no direct sunshine, some airflow and ventilation, and a temperature of 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit (15-21 degrees Celsius), with a humidity of 60 to 75 percent.
  • Within three to four months, your maitake mushrooms should have fruited and unfurled like a flower, ready to harvest. Mushroom caps should stand straight and smell fresh and earthy. Mushrooms that have released spores or have a fishy odor are not safe for consumption.

 

Lion’s Mane

Lion’s Mane: Hericium erinaceus

The lion’s mane is pure white with a hard texture and grows in numerous strands clustered in a circular form. They might have a diameter of 6 inches or more. They can be found growing wild in the southern United States on dead oak, walnut, beech, sycamore, and maple trees.

Lion's mane mushroom

Health Benefits & Medicinal effects

In China, the Lion’s Mane is treasured and used to treat digestive problems as well as esophageal and stomach cancer. According to research, the mushroom contains polysaccharides that boost the immune system and raise the number of white blood cells in the body, allowing for faster healing. The ability of Lion’s Mane to help manage blood sugar and cholesterol levels has also been established.

There are no known side effects or toxicity risks associated with this mushroom. Another ongoing topic of investigation is the mushroom’s potential to aid in the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and it is currently accessible in capsule form.

Hirokazu Kawagishi of Shizoka University in Japan, a well-known expert on Lion’s Mane, has validated the mushroom’s exceptional potential to promote Nerve Growth Factor synthesis (NGF). Alzheimer’s disease is hypothesized to be caused in part by a lack of NGF.

Preparation & Cooking

In the East, the lion’s mane is considered a delicacy. The flavor of this mushroom is similar to that of seafood. To keep the flavor of the lion’s mane, simmer it slowly and add any seasonings when it’s almost done.

Growing Lion’s Mane Mushrooms

For indoor cultivation, you can buy Lion’s Mane mushroom kits in plastic bags. It’s best to keep the room at a comfortable temperature and spray twice a day. Harvest when the spines have lengthened but before the fruiting mass has softened or developed a yellow tint.

 

Paddy Straw

Paddy Straw: (Volvariella violaceae)

In Asia, the paddy straw mushroom, also known as Chinese mushrooms, is commercially grown on rice straw. This dark-colored fungus is utilized in a variety of Asian recipes. They have a distinctively attractive flavor.

paddy straw mushroom

Their distinct shape makes them easily identifiable, and they can be found in grocery shops canned, fresh, or dried. A sack surrounds the mushrooms, which can be left on or removed for harvest or cooking.

Health Benefits & Medicinal Effects

Paddy Straw mushrooms are supposed to aid in the healing of auto-immune disease damage. They also have many of the same nutritional advantages as other mushrooms.

Preparation & Cooking

The meaty texture of these small bite-size mushrooms makes them a fantastic complement to vegetable dishes, stir-fries, chop suey, chow mein, soups, and sauces.

Growing Paddy Straw Mushrooms

Because the Paddy Straw mushroom’s natural habitat is tropical, it can be grown in warm indoor conditions. This mushroom is normally produced in paddy straw bundles that have been dried and tied together before being soaked in water for 12 to 16 hours.

Paddy Straw spawn can also be grown from grains or millets. Mushrooms typically appear two weeks after the beds are spawned and fruit for about a week. They barely endure a few days after harvest, even when refrigerated, due to their delicate makeup.

 

Shiitake Mushroom

Shiitake: (Lentinula edodes)

Shiitakes are known as the “king of mushrooms” and can reach a diameter of three to four inches. Their dark brown color is in the shape of an umbrella. These brown mushrooms have a meaty texture and little white specks or dots on them. They have a flavor that is rich, robust, and even smokey, and are commonly used in delicious recipes. These mushrooms are also widely available dried, for use in cooking and for health and therapeutic purposes.

shiitake mushroom

Native Americans and Asian nations have long used shiitake mushrooms for culinary and medicinal purposes. This mushroom takes third place in the world’s most widely produced mushrooms. Shiitake mushroom production has been going on in the United States for almost two decades and is increasing faster than any other specialty mushroom.

Health and Medicinal Benefits

Shiitake mushrooms are popular as medicinal mushrooms due to their use in Asian medicine. Extensive research has revealed that these mushrooms lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol, protect the immune system, and have anti-tumor capabilities. Shiitake mushrooms are high in vitamin D and contain lentinan, a natural anti-tumor substance. Antiviral properties of shiitake mushrooms protect against HIV, hepatitis, and the common cold.

Shiitake include vitamins A, B, B12, and C in addition to vitamin D and minerals. Shiitake mushrooms contain all eight important amino acids. This mushroom’s amino acids are more diverse than those found in milk, meat, eggs, or even soybeans. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to have antiviral and antifungal properties, as well as the ability to decrease cholesterol and blood pressure.

The majority of Shiitake medical research has been done with extracts in laboratories, which are not the same as the Shiitake mushroom taken as a food. As a result, there is a lot of information about the medicinal properties of shiitake mushrooms extract, but not so much about the benefits of eating them as food. However, the existing evidence indicates that Shiitake mushrooms have special and outstanding health benefits.

Immune Support

Shittake mushrooms have a lot of evidence that they can help your immune system. The extracts have shown to have the majority of the therapeutic advantages. The unique combination of antioxidants in shiitake mushrooms, along with immune system support, opens up prospects for protection against a variety of ailments, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Cardiovascular Benefits

Shiitake have been shown to provide cardiovascular advantages in three areas: cholesterol reduction, the relationship between our cardiovascular system and our immune system, and cardiovascular benefits involving antioxidant support. Manganese, selenium, and zinc are three important antioxidant minerals found in shiitake, as well as several uncommon phytonutrient antioxidants.

Anti-Cancer Benefits

As previously stated, research on therapeutic extracts from shiitake mushrooms rather than the complete food has been conducted. Certain components of the shiitake have been shown to inhibit tumor growth.

Growing Shiitake Mushrooms

Shiitake mushrooms can be grown at home on sterilized sawdust blocks. Cottonseed meals can be added to the blocks to make them more durable. In a humid warm environment, such as a basement, you can inoculate logs and grow Shiitake mushrooms.

Growing shiitake on logs may yield the best results, but sawdust creates additional surface surfaces for possible colonization. Shiitake mushroom kits are easy to cultivate indoors at temperatures ranging from 55 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. In just a few months, a kit can produce two to three pounds, with fruiting every few weeks.

 

Oyster Mushrooms

Oyster: (Pleurotus)

Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius are two common oyster mushroom species for cultivating. Oyster mushrooms, which belong to the Pleurotaceae family, can be found growing in clusters in the wild on logs, tree stumps, and deciduous tree trunks, with a cap width of one to six inches and a stalk length of up to 114 inches (2-15 cm) and a diameter of around 34 inches round (2-3 cm wide).

oyster mushroom

As a decomposer, the oyster mushroom prefers deciduous hardwood and conifer trees in its natural habitat. They’re found in forests all around the planet. The oyster mushroom derives its name from the fact that it tastes and feels like oysters. The wild oyster mushrooms, which are considered a delicacy, have a superior flavor to the professionally farmed ones commonly seen in grocery stores.

The popularity of this fungus, however, has resulted in annual production increases of more than 10%. However, this popular gourmet mushroom not only graces dinner plates around the world, but it also helps to digest waste plastics and petroleum spills. Oyster mushrooms can help clean up polluted areas by degrading environmental contaminants.

Health & Medical Benefits

As high levels of anti-oxidant chemicals are found in oyster mushrooms, they are currently being studied as a possible HIV defense. Oyster mushrooms are high in protein, B vitamins, cholesterol-free, and contain significant levels of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering chemical. Oyster mushrooms are known for being the easiest to grow, as well as being extremely nutritional and medicinally beneficial.

Preparation & Cooking

  • Sautéed oyster tops are delectable.
  • The flavor of oysters varies, but they are often milder than the shiitake mushroom.
  • Oyster mushrooms are a popular gourmet ingredient, but they’re hard to come by in grocery shops due to their delicate nature, which makes them difficult to ship.
  • Oyster mushrooms must be boiled before eating because they contain a harmful protein called “ostreolysin.”

Growing Oyster Mushroom

Oyster kits normally include a fully colonized collection of sticky white mycelium as well as small wheat or oat straw column. This comes in a plastic bag with holes in it. Oyster mushrooms need to be misted many times a day since they flourish in high humidity. It’s ideal to keep the “blue dolphin” below 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius).

The golden oyster” produces yellow fruits, whereas the white oyster” is the simplest to grow. A tower kit will burst with these mushrooms if they are given the proper care, temperature, and humidity. Kits usually produce two fruits. The mycelium can then be placed in a compost heap to grow more.

More oysters can be produced by mixing mycelium with moist sawdust, coffee grinds, and straw, placing it in paper board milk cartons with a few holes on the edges and then storing it in plastic bags in the dark for a month or two. On commercial farms, oyster mushrooms are grown on sterilized straw columns suspended from the ceilings.

 

Wine caps

These mushrooms, also known as King Stropharia, Godzilla, and the Garden Giant, have a massive cap that can grow to be five inches (12 cm) across and ages to a reddish-brown tone or wine hue. This mushroom, which is popular in Europe, grows in woods in the United States, Europe, New Zealand, and Japan.

wine cap mushroom

Health & Medicinal Benefits

Wine caps are thought to improve healthy skin, as well as prevent hangnails and blisters, because they contain many of the elements found in mushrooms.

Preparation & Cooking

This mushroom can be baked, fried, stuffed, or stir-fried in butter with lemon juice, wine, nutmeg, or fennel for a delicious dish. It is not advisable to cook with onion or garlic.

Growing Wine Caps

Wine caps are commonly grown in outdoor gardens, but they can also be grown indoors. The optimum substrate is sawdust and pasteurized straw, with a layer of rich soil and spawn-inoculated Douglas fir and alder wood chips on top. The liquid culture of the Wine Cap mushroom can be simply injected into a sterile substrate. After three to four weeks of dormancy between fruiting, kits can fruit again.

 

Reishi Mushrooms

Reishi: Ganoderma lucidum

Reishi mushrooms are polypores (no gills), and the spores are produced through a flat area beneath the cap. Ganoderma lucidum comes in a variety of colors, including red, purple, green, white, yellow, and black. The Reishi has a flower-like appearance and a woody texture. In China, reishi is renowned as the immortality mushroom, as well as the plant of spiritual potency.

reishi mushroom

In China, they have a lengthy history of medical use reaching back more than 2,000 years. This mushroom is grown on hardwoods such as maple, oaks, and elms all over the world, despite its origins in China, Japan, and Korea. The reishi is classified as a saprotroph, however, some people consider it to be a parasite.

Health & Medicinal Benefits

The most therapeutic powers are claimed to be found in the red reishi mushroom. The pills are all-natural and have no known negative side effects. The health advantages of reishi  include:

  • regulating blood pressure
  • stimulating liver actions
  • fighting the effects of stress

Reishi supplements are taken for:

  • Allergies
  • Anxiety
  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Cancer, particularly leukemia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Flu prevention
  • HIV/AIDS
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Inflammatory conditions
  • Insomnia
  • Diabetes
  • Hepatitis
  • Radiation poisoning

And treating:

  • insomnia
  • gastric ulcers
  • neurasthenia
  • arthritis
  • nephritis
  • asthma
  • bronchitis
  • hypertension
  • neuromuscular disorders
  • myasthenia gravis
  • muscular dystrophy

Anti-inflammatory, useful for reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

  • Immune system up-regulation
  • Normalization of blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure
  • Reduction of prostate-related urinary symptoms in men

Preparation & Cooking

Reishi mushrooms can be consumed in a variety of ways, including:

  • In the soup, olive oil, salt, and seasonings are sautéed.
  • As a side dish, grill it.
  • Whole dried reishi mushrooms can be found, as well as powdered reishi mushrooms.
  • Ground mushrooms are used to make reishi tea.
  • The powder is dried and used to make “reishi spirits.”

Growing Reishi Mushrooms

Reishi mushroom cultivation necessitates rigorous attention to detail. It’s not too difficult, as long as you pay attention to temperature and humidity, as well as Reishi Mushroom mycelium plug spawn. Grow-it-Yourself Beginner Reishi Mushroom Kits are available and recommended.

Reishi mushrooms can be grown indoors at any time of year as long as humidity is maintained and the temperature is kept below 21 degrees Celsius. Unless carbon dioxide levels are very high, most reishi will have a red or brown top. Small fingers will form instead of a cap.

 

Turkey tail

Turkey tail: (Stereum ostrea)

The term comes from the fact that turkey tail mushrooms grow in bunches of leathery, thin layers, frequently in a variety of colors. They can be found in the wild on deciduous tree stumps and logs. The crown normally measures one to four inches in diameter and has no stalk. While the turkey tail is simple to identify due to the colors on the cap, the false turkey tail (Stereum ostrea) has a smooth underside.

turkey tails mushroom

Health & Medicinal Benefits

Turkey tail mushrooms have been used to treat a range of ailments in Asia, Europe, and North America for ages. Turkey tail, in the form of a turkey tail mushroom capsule, is used to stimulate the immune system and treat liver cancer and jaundice. Turkey tail mushrooms have been shown in studies to be an effective addition to chemotherapy and radiation therapies.

Preparation & Cooking

Turkey tail is commonly used in turkey tail tea or soup.

Growing Turkey Tail

Turkey tail can be grown in a terrarium at home, although they are tough to grow and are not suggested for novices. A turkey tail indoor mushroom growth kit, on the other hand, can be useful.  Mushrooms come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, depending on the culture, growing methods, and production system. In a carefully managed environment, mycelium can be grown.

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